Direct discharge Acid mine drainage in the Rio Tinto River. See also: Sewerage, Industrial waste, and Environmental issues WIth mining Pollutants enter rivers and the sea directly from urban sewerage and industrial waste discharges, sometimes in the form of hazardous and toxic wastes. Inland mining for copper, gold. etc. , is another source of marine pollution. Most of the pollution is simply soil, which ends up in rivers flowing to the sea.
However, some minerals discharged in the course of the ml , such as copper, a common industrial rfere with the ora life history and devel 2] Mining has a to nen poor environmental L , according to the United States En gency, mlning has contaminated portions ot the headwaters of over of watersheds in the western continental US.  Much of this pollution finishes up in the sea. edit]Land runoff Man article: Surface runoff See also: Urban runoff and Stormwater Surface runoff from farming, as well as urban runoff and runoff from the construction of roads, buildings, ports, channels, and harbours, can carry soil and particles laden with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and minerals. This nutrient-rich water can caus Swipe to vlew next page cause fleshy algae and phytoplankton to thrive in coastal areas; nown as algal blooms, which have the potential to create hypoxic conditions by using all available oxygen. olluted runofffrom roads and highways can be a sgnificant source of water pollution in coastal areas. About 75 percent of the toxic chemicals that flow into puget Sound are carried by stormwater that runs off paved roads and driveways, rooftops, yards and other developed land.  Ship pollution Main article: Ship pollution See also: Ballast water discharge and the environment A cargo ship pumps ballast water over the Side. Ships can pollute waterways and oceans in many ways_ Oil spills an have devastating effects.
While being toxic to marine life, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), found in crude oil, are very dificult to Clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment.  Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carriers can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. In many instances vessels intentionally discharge ilegal wastes despite foreign and domestic regulation prohibiting such actions. It has been estimated that container ships lose over 10,000 containers at sea each year (usually during storms).  Ships also create noise pollution that disturbs na